How to achieve a 100% successful vaccination
1. Ensure the birds are in perfect Health condition BEFORE administering vaccines
2. Stop /withdraw the administration of drugs 2-3 days before vaccination
3. For large farms; all attendants will need to be present to dispense the drinking cans and retrieve the exhausted cans as soon as possible.
4. Starve birds of water for 1-2 hours, depending on the age of the birds and humidity of the environment. Older birds may be starved longer than the above hours.
5. Sufficient drinking cans should be made available preferably one (1) drinking can to 10-15 birds. This is the most important part of vaccination. Some farmers will allege that the vaccine failed when they start noticing twisted neck (NEWCASTLE) in their farms. This may be due to inability of birds to access drinking cans OR birds had gone through stress conditions during vaccination.
6. Make sure all is set before removing the vaccine bottle from the ice/cooler/fridge to reduce exposure time.
7. Try to use the vaccines as soon as possible, the vaccines are reconstituted, delay may lead to decrease in the titre. Time sequence of vaccination should be accurate.
8. Watch out for birds that are reluctant to drink from the water cans, hold them gently and dip their beak into the water can to taste of the vaccine.
9. Wash /rinse water cans before reusing.
10. Throw away the used vaccination bottle far away from the farm.
11. Immediately after vaccination, administer plain water (without drugs).
12. Subsequently, administer vitamins to ease stress.
HOW TO PREVENT VACCINE FAILURE
1.STORAGE AND TRANSPORT:
Buy your vaccine from reliable and reputable Vet Shop which has refrigeration facilities. Live Vaccines are normally stored at a temperature of +2C to +8C. They should neither be frozen in a freezer nor stored above +8C. When transporting, the same temperature should be maintained. Transportation in a flask with ice is good.
2.CHECK EXPIRING DATE:
Ensure vaccines are not expired by confirming the date on the vial before purchase.
3.DONT VACCINATE SICK BIRDS:
The immune system of a sick bird is weak and cannot satisfactorily withstand a vaccine, let alone develop immunity against the disease. Vaccination of a sick bird can precipitate the disease it is intended to prevent. Sick birds should therefore be allowed to recover before vaccination.
4.VACCINES ADMINISTERED VIA DRINKING WATER:
Should be opened under the water into which it is to be mixed. This is because vaccines are normally vaccum sealed. When opened in the air they may draw contaminated air into the container or the vial.
*Whenever necessary, deworming should be carried out one week prior to vaccination.
*Do not vaccinate under high temperature as it affects vaccine potency. Vaccination should be carried out during cooler periods of the day. Heat sources in brooder house may be temporarily turned off except when the weather is too cold.
*Avoid stress during vaccination; stress is a well documented and proven immunosuppressant. During stress the plasma corticosteroid level increases significantly, which result in a severe protein catabolism (break down of protein), resulting in reduced protection of antibodies in the body (poor antibody titres).
FEED: Feed also plays a very important role directly or indirectly in the development of immunity. Birds fed with well balanced diet will respond better. Feed should be analysed from time to time for the presence of MYCOTOXINS.
*For administration of correct dose ACTUAL WATER Consumption must be known prior to vaccination day.
*Supply sufficient drinkers and even distribution of the drinkers.
*Discontinue and stop the use of any medication at least 48hours before the vaccination.
*Left over vaccine must be properly buried.
*Use only skimmed milk for Vaccines. Avoid using powdered milk during vaccination. SKIMMED MILK ACTS AS A PROTEIN SOURCE AND THE VACCINE VIRUS ATTACHES TO IT.
Any powdered milk apart from skimmed milk contains 9% or 10% fat, and this fat aggregates on or near the surface of the container (due to light weight of the fat) where vaccine is mixed, leading to the development of different concentration zones of the vaccine in the container.
*After adding the skimmed milk, wait 10mins for complete chlorine neutralization before opening the Vail of the vaccine under the surface of the water.