icon 0

Web &Apps Programming UNDERSTANDING THE ANDROID SOFTWARE STACK

Understanding the Android Software Stack

The Android software stack is composed of the elements shown in Figure 1-1 and described in further detail below it. Put simply, a Linux kernel and a collection of C/C++ libraries are exposed through an application framework that provides services for, and management of, the run time and applications.

❑Linux Kernel Core services (including hardware drivers, process and memory management, security, network, and power management) are handled by a Linux 2.6 kernel. The kernel also provides an abstraction layer between the hardware and the remainder of the stack.

❑Libraries Running on top of the kernel, Android includes various C/C++ core libraries such as libc and SSL, as well as:

❑ A media library for playback of audio and video media ❑ A Surface manager to provide display management

❑ Graphics libraries that include SGL and OpenGL for 2D and 3D graphics ❑ SQLite for native database support

❑SSL and WebKit for integrated web browser and Internet security

❑Android Run Time What makes an Android phone an Android phone rather than a mobile Linux implementation is the Android run time. Including the core libraries and the Dalvik vir-tual machine, the Android run time is the engine that powers your applications and, along with the libraries, forms the basis for the application framework.

❑Core Libraries While Android development is done in Java, Dalvik is not a Java VM. The core Android libraries provide most of the functionality available in the core Java libraries as well as the Android-specific libraries.

❑Dalvik Virtual Machine Dalvik is a register-based virtual machine that’s been opti-mized to ensure that a device can run multiple instances efficiently. It relies on the Linux kernel for threading and low-level memory management.

❑Application Framework The application framework provides the classes used to create Android applications. It also provides a generic abstraction for hardware access and manages the user interface and application resources.

❑Application Layer All applications, both native and third party, are built on the application layer using the same API libraries. The application layer runs within the Android run time using the classes and services made available from the application framework.

The Dalvik Virtual Machine

One of the key elements of Android is the Dalvik virtual machine. Rather than use a traditional Java virtual machine (VM) such as Java ME (Java Mobile Edition), Android uses its own custom VM designed to ensure that multiple instances run efficiently on a single device.

The Dalvik VM uses the device’s underlying Linux kernel to handle low-level functionality including security, threading, and process and memory management. It’s also possible to write C/C++ applica-tions that run directly on the underlying Linux OS. While you can do this, in most cases there’s no rea-son you should need to.

This book focuses exclusively on writing applications that run within Dalvik. If your inclinations run toward exploring the Linux kernel and C/C++ underbelly of Android, modifying Dalvik, or otherwise tinkering with things under the hood, check out the Android Internals Google Group at

groups.google.com/group/android-internals

All Android hardware and system service access is managed using Dalvik as a middle tier. By using a VM to host application execution, developers have an abstraction layer that ensures they never have to worry about a particular hardware implementation.

The Dalvik VM executes Dalvik executable files, a format optimized to ensure minimal memory foot-print. The .dex executables are created by transforming Java language compiled classes using the tools supplied within the SDK. You’ll learn more about how to create Dalvik executables in the next chapter.

Android Application Architecture

Android’s architecture encourages the concept of component reuse, allowing you to publish and share activities, services, and data with other applications with access managed by the security restrictions you put in place.

The same mechanism that lets you produce a replacement contact manager or phone dialer can let you expose your application components to let other developers create new UI front ends and functionality extensions, or otherwise build on them.

The following application services are the architectural cornerstones of all Android applications, pro-viding the framework you’ll be using for your own software:

❑Activity Manager Controls the life cycle of your activities, including management of the activ-ity stack described in Chapter 3.

❑Views Are used to construct the user interfaces for your activities as described in Chapter 4.

❑Notification Manager Provides a consistent and non-intrusive mechanism for signaling your users as described in Chapter 8.

❑Content Providers Lets your applications share data between applications as described in Chapter 6.

❑Resource Manager Supports non-code resources like strings and graphics to be externalized as shown in Chapter 3.


Please help us share this, using our share botton.
Bookmark Our website https://wap.org.ng


Author: adex3g 1 year
0 299


Please we need your reply to this topic.
Login or Register

Related post!

THE HISTORY OF AFRO RUSSIANS: TRACING THE IDENTITY OF A DIVERSE COMMUNITY
THE History Of Afro-Russians Is A Captivating Tale That Weaves Together The Complex Intersections Of Race, Culture, And Identity. In Russia, A Diverse Community Of Afro-Russians Emerged In The 16th And Early 17th Centuries, Contributing To The Countrys...

Author: adex3gadex3g 9 months
Comment 0 . Views 87
UNDERSTANDING THE AMERICAN OPPORTUNITY TAX CREDIT AND STUDENT LOAN INTEREST DEDUCTION
Understanding The American Opportunity Tax Credit And Student Loan Interest Deduction

Student Loans Are A Necessary Reality For Many People Pursuing Higher Education. While These Loans Can Provide The Funds Needed To Pay For Tuition And...

Author: adex3gadex3g 11 months
Comment 0 . Views 114
REASONS WHY PI WILL BE A SUCCESSFUL PROJECT.
Who Is The Organizer Behind Pi Network? What Might He Do For The Venture Succeed? What Are StartX And Starlink? How Could Individuals Interface With One Another By Means Of Tesla Telephone Model Pi?

In The Case Of Nothing Else, Perusing...

Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 748
A GUIDE TO CRYPTOCURRENCY FUNDAMENTALS
A Guide To Cryptocurrency Fundamentals

Cryptocurrency Investing Is A Relatively New Industry, But Over Time It Has Become A Very Popular Way To Make Money. Here Are Some Tutorials To Help You Get Started Investing In Cryptocurrencies:
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 143
UNDERSTANDING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCHIZOPHRENIA AND ADHD IN CHILDREN
Understanding The Differences Between Schizophrenia And ADHD In Children

When It Comes To Understanding The Differences Between Schizophrenia And ADHD In Children, It's Important To First Understand The Symptoms Of Each Condition. Both...

Author: adex3gadex3g 11 months
Comment 0 . Views 139
TOP 5 LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE BOOK MASTER MENTORS
Top 5 Lessons Learned From The Book Master Mentors

1. Vulnerability Is A Leadership Competency.

The Key To Building Team Engagement Is The Leaders Willingness To Show Vulnerability On Their Strengths And Weaknesses,

Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 283
WHY IMMIGRATING TO CANADA FOR HIGH-PAYING TEXTILE JOBS IS A GOOD IDEA
Are You A Skilled Textile Professional Seeking A Rewarding Career Path? Look No Further Than The Great White North! Canada, Known For Its Breathtaking Landscapes And Friendly Atmosphere, Is Also Home To A Thriving Textile Industry That Offers High-paying...

Author: adex3gadex3g 5 months
Comment 0 . Views 75
NATURAL MAGIC
NATURAL MAGIC

Many People Think That Natural Magic Involves Marking Cryptic Signs, Uttering Incomprehensible Chants And Words, Walking Backwards Around Cracked Stones And Other Unusual Actions. They Believe That Doing Such Things Are The...

Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 233
COMMON CAUSE OF OILY SKIN AND NATURAL TREATMENT
Oily Skin Is A Common Condition That Occurs When The Sebaceous Glands In The Skin Produce Excessive Sebum, Leading To A Shiny, Greasy Complexion. While Some Amount Of Sebum Is Necessary To Keep The Skin Moisturized And Protected, An Overproduction Can...

Author: adex3gadex3g 9 months
Comment 0 . Views 79
DISADVANTAGES OF AFFILIATE MARKETING
Affiliate Marketing Has Gained Popularity In Recent Years As A Way For Bloggers, Social Media Influencers, And Website Owners To Earn Money By Promoting Products Or Services To Their Audience. While There Are Many Advantages To Affiliate Marketing, Its...

Author: adex3gadex3g 4 months
Comment 0 . Views 74
HOW TO MAKE YOUR PARTNER FORGIVES YOU
When We Make Mistakes In Our Relationships, It Can Be Challenging To Regain Trust And Forgiveness From Our Partners. However, With Sincere Efforts And Effective Communication, It Is Possible To Rebuild The Relationship And Make Your Partner Forgive You....

Author: adex3gadex3g 10 months
Comment 0 . Views 92
EFFICIENT WAY TO BUILD CRYPTO PORTFOLIO
The Most Effective Method To Construct The Ideal Crypto Portfolio — An Aide For Fledglings And High Level Clients.

In This Article, I Will Tell You The Best Way To Fabricate The Ideal Crypto Portfolio That Precisely Addresses Your Issues...

Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 163
10 LESSONS FROM THE BOOK "THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LAZINESS" MOHAMMAD SHAKEEL
10 Lessons From The Book
"The Psychology Of Laziness" Mohammad Shakeel

1. Lazy People Often Have The Most Creative Minds, As They Are Constantly Seeking Ways To Do Less Work.

2. The Psychology Of Laziness Is Not...

Author: adex3gadex3g 4 months
Comment 0 . Views 104
WE 'VE DONE MOVE THAN ENOUGH TO END ASUU STRIKE - FG
We 've Done Move Than Enough To End ASUU Strike - FG

The Federal Government On Tuesday Said It Has Done All It Can With Regard To The Ongoing Strike By The Academic Staff Union Of Universities(ASUU).

“We Have Done The Best...

Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 144
GENTIS RECRUITMENT SCAM: REVIEWS ON HOW IT WORKS
Understanding The Growing Industry Of Recruitment Agencies
The Recruitment Industry Has Seen Huge Growth In Recent Decades As The Nature Of Work Has Changed. Growing Globalization And An Increasingly Mobile Workforce Have Created Demand For Professional...

Author: adex3gadex3g 4 months
Comment 0 . Views 78

Web &Apps ProgrammingLast 40 Post List

THE EVOLUTION OF ONLINE ELECTRONIC STORES: M&S ELECTRONICS LEADING THE WAY
The Evolution Of Online Electronic Stores: M&S Electronics Leading The Way

In The Ever-expanding World Of E-commerce, The Phrase "online Electronic Store" Has Become Synonymous With Convenience, Variety, And Innovation. As We Delve Into...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 4 months
Comment 0 . Views 94
NAVIGATING INNOVATION: THE RISE OF MOBILE APP DEVELOPMENT COMPANIES IN NEW YORK
The City That Never Sleeps, New York, Is Not Only A Cultural And Financial Powerhouse But Also An Epicenter Of Technological Innovation. In The Midst Of This Bustling Metropolis, Mobile App Development Companies Have Been Quietly Revolutionizing The Tech...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 4 months
Comment 0 . Views 74
PROGRAMMING LIFE
Do You Want To Become A Programmer Or Developer? And You Don`t Know Where To Start Or Begin From?

Well This Post Will Direct You On How To Begin And The Steps To Taken In Becoming A Successful Programmer | Developer.

What...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 270
BECOMING A WEB3 DEVELOPER AND FRONTEND
Becoming A Web3 Developer And Frontend

In The Event That You Are Not Hiding Away Somewhere, In A Cave Perhaps, You Likely Caught Wind Of Web3, Blockchain, And The Buzz Encompassing It.

The Reaction From The Tech Local Area...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 237
WHAT IS PEER-TO-PEER COMMUNICATION ON ANDROID APPLICATION PROGRAMMING
What Is Peer-to-Peer Communication On Android Application Programming

In This Chapter, You’ll Learn To Use Android’s Peer-to-peer (P2P) Text And Data Communication Pro-tocols, Specifically, Instant Messaging And SMS (short Messaging Service)....read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 269
INTRODUCING THE ANDROID APPLICATION MANIFEST
Each Android Project Includes A Manifest File, AndroidManifest.xml, Stored In The Root Of The Proj-ect Hierarchy. The Manifest Lets You Define The Structure And Metadata Of Your Application And Its Components.

It Includes Nodes For Each...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 215
WHAT MAKES AN ANDROID APPLICATION?
Android Applications Consist Of Loosely Coupled Components, Bound Using A Project Manifest That Describes Each Component And How They Interact.

There Are Six Components That Provide The Building Blocks For Your Applications:
read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 218
CREATING APPLICATIONS AND ACTIVITIES
Before You Start Writing Android Applications, It’s Important To Understand How They’re Con-structed And Have An Understanding Of The Android Application Life Cycle. In This Chapter, You’ll Be Introduced To The Loosely Coupled Components That Make Up...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 235
ANDROID DEVELOPMENT TOOLS WITH THE EMULATOR
The Android SDK Includes Several Tools And Utilities To Help You Create, Test, And Debug Your Projects. A Detailed Examination Of Each Developer Tool Is Outside The Scope Of This Book, But It’s Worth Briefly Review-ing What’s Available. For More Detail...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 252
DOWNLOADING AND INSTALLING THE SDK AND DEVELOPING WITH ECLIPSE/USING THE ECLIPSE PLUG-IN
The Android SDK Is Completely Open. There’s No Cost To Download And Use The API, And Google Doesn’t Charge To Allow Distribution Of Your Finished Programs. You Can Download The Latest Version Of The SDK For Your Development Platform From The Android Development...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 176
ALL YOU NEED TO START WRITING YOUR OWN ANDROID APPLICATIONS
Getting Started
All You Need To Start Writing Your Own Android Applications Is A Copy Of The Android SDK And The Java Development Kit. Unless You’re A Masochist, You’ll Probably Want A Java IDE — Eclipse Is Particularly Well Supported — To Make...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 187
ADVANCED ANDROID LIBRARIES AND SUMMARY
Android Libraries
Android Offers A Number Of APIs For Developing Your Applications. The Following List Of Core APIs Should Provide An Insight Into What’s Available; All Android Devices Will Offer Support For At Least These APIs:

❑android.util...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 297
UNDERSTANDING THE ANDROID SOFTWARE STACK
Understanding The Android Software Stack

The Android Software Stack Is Composed Of The Elements Shown In Figure 1-1 And Described In Further Detail Below It. Put Simply, A Linux Kernel And A Collection Of C/C++ Libraries Are Exposed Through...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 300
INTRODUCTION OF ANDROID DEVELOPMENT
Introduction:
Now Is An Exciting Time For Mobile Developers. Mobile Phones Have Never Been More Popular, And Powerful Smartphones Are Now A Regular Choice For Consumers. Stylish And Versatile Phones Packing Hard-ware Features Like GPS, Accelerometers,...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 202
AN OPEN PLATFORM FOR MOBILE DEVELOPMENT AND NATIVE ANDROID APPLICATIONS
Google Describes Android As:

The First Truly Open And Comprehensive Platform For Mobile Devices, All Of The Software To Run A Mobile Phone But Without The Proprietary Obstacles That Have Hindered Mobile Innovation.

googleblog.blogspot.com/2007/11/wheres-my-gphone.htmlread more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 213
INTRODUCING THE OPEN HANDSET ALLIANCE
The Open Handset Alliance (OHA) Is A Collection Of More Than 30 Technology Companies Including Hard-ware Manufacturers, Mobile Carriers, And Software Developers. Of Particular Note Are The Prominent Mobile Technology Companies Motorola, HTC, T-Mobile,...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 437
WHAT DOES ANDROID RUN ON?
The First Android Mobile Handset, The T-Mobile G1, Was Released In The US In October 2008 And In The UK In November 2008. The Open Handset Alliance Has Further Committed To Deploying Additional Handsets And Services That Support Android Early In 2009.read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 282
WHY DEVELOP FOR ANDROID
If You Have A Background In Mobile Application Development, You Don’t Need Me To Tell You That:

❑ A Lot Of What You Can Do With Android Is Already Possible. ❑ But Doing It Is Painful.

Android Represents A Clean Break, A Mobile...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 165
WHAT WILL DRIVE ANDROID ADOPTION?
Android Is Targeted Primarily At Developers, With Google And The OHA Betting That The Way To Deliver Better Mobile Software To Consumers Is By Making It Easier For Developers To Write It Themselves.

As A Development Platform, Android Is...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 252
WHAT DOES IT HAVE THAT OTHERS DON’T?
Many Of The Features Listed Previously, Such As 3D Graphics And Native Database Support, Are Also Avail-able In Other Mobile SDKs. Here Are Some Of The Unique Features That Set Android Apart:

❑Google Map Applications Google Maps For Mobile...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 164
HOW TO LINK A JAVA JBUTTON TO A WEBSITE
If You Are Looking For How To Link A Jbutton To A Website

Use This Code Below

Below Is Java Code On How To Link Your Jbutton To A Website.
Package link.jbutton.to.a.website;read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 313
LUCRATIVE PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE IN NIGERIA
Frequent Question Asked By New Programmers Is: ‘Which Programming Language Is Lucrative?’ Considering Ones Region, Experience And What Is Required At That Point In Time, All Of These Could Make The Question A Bit Hard To Answer. I Remember Asking Myself...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 407
HOW TO FIND OUT ON WHICH DAY YOU CREATED YOUR INSTAGRAM ACCOUNT
On Instagram, Go To Settings, Scroll Down Till You See Accout Data, Then You’ll Have To Log In. Once You Do That You’ll See Some Account Information Including The Date You Created Your Instagram Account.
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 250
WAPKIZ REGISTER PAGE RESPONSIVE DESIGN CODE
For Those Of You Using Wapkiz Website Builder, This Is For You.

Wapkiz register Page Responsive Design

Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 550
HOW TO SPEED UP WORDPRESS WEBSITES 2022
You Need To Know The Current Speed Details Before You Can Start Talking About Speeding It Up.

Google Page Speed Insight Tool Can Be A Very Useful Tool For You In This Aspect. GTMetrix Is Another Good Tool For This Purpose. Either Of These...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 237
HOW TO CONVERT WORDPRESS SITE TO MOBILE APP
In This Article, I’ll Teach You How To Convert Your WordPress Site To A Mobile App In 2 Methods, Both Are Great But The 2nd Method Is Actually Quite Better.


Converting Your WordPress Site To Mobile App Will Undoubtedly Result In...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 412
HEADLESS CMS EXPLAINED
CMSs Are Pretty Hard To Ignore Because They're Everywhere On The Internet. WordPress, For Example, Powers Nearly 40% Of The Internet Today.

In This Article, We'll Cover What CMSs Are And Why You Should Care About Them. I'll Also Introduce...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 257
WEB DESIGN COMPONENTS:
Web Design Focuses More On The Front-end Side Which Encompasses Several Aspects Including:

1. Webpage Layout,

2. Content Production,

3. Element Placements And

4. Web Graphics.

The...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 281
FEATURES AND BENEFITS OF WEB DESIGN:
1. Web Design Helps To Beautify Web Pages On The Internet.

2. Web Design Is Easy To Maintain And Co-ordinate.

3. Web Design Helps To Put Our Brands And Businesses On The Internet.

4. It Improves User Interactions...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 180
ADVANTAGES OF STUDYING WEB DESIGN:
1. It Helps Students To Gain Both Web Mark-up Skills And Programming Languages Skills.

2. It Helps Students To Be Able To Create Responsive Websites.

3. It Helps To Gain Necessary Skills For Building User-interacton Interfaces...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 251
WHAT IS WEB DESIGN?
Web Design Is The Process Involved In Creation Of Standard Websites. A Standard Website Has Two Major Sides, Namely: Front-End And Back-End.

In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee At CERN - The European Organization For Nuclear Research Proposed To...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 1 year
Comment 0 . Views 253
TOP 10 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES TO LEARN IN 2022
A Programming Language Refers To The Means Of Communication That Is Used By Humans To Instruct Computers To Perform Specified Tasks. These Languages Use Particular Coding Syntax To Create Programs To Perform Specialized Tasks. Software Programming Is...read more
Author: adex3gadex3g 2 years
Comment 0 . Views 271
There are currently 0 users view this page
0 Members || 0 Guests
WEBSITE REVIEWS, SELLING AND GOOGLE ADSENSE HELPS(0) INSURANCE INVESTMENT PLANS(29) CRYPTOCURRENCY INVESTMENT(92) FORUM FRANçAIS(16) ENTERTAINMENT(1.3K) CAREER(9) SCIENCE(8) MUSIC(4) SPORTS(41) RELIGION(107) FOOD AND HEALTH(1.1K) EDUCATION(1.6K) RELATIONSHIP(179) TECHNOLOGY(189) FINANCE(389) MUSIC(43) SITE INFORMATION(4) BABA IJEBU LOTTO AND RESULTS(3.8K) PHONES(67) COMPUTERS(22) WEB &APPS PROGRAMMING(32) JOBS & VACANCIES(14) QUESTIONS & ANSWERS(18) WEBMASTERS(292) FOOTBALL NEWS(595) ANIMALS(74) STORIES AND HISTORIES(5.7K) CRIME(1.5K) POLITICS(3.8K) JOKES(55) CULTURE(115)